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Gene Tool
8/4/2014
Bookmark this quick-reference genetic genealogy cheat sheet.
Genetic Genealogy Testing Companies
 
Genetic Genealogy Glossary
admixture:  ancestry that originates from more than one ethnic group

allele result: also called a marker value, the numeric value assigned to a genetic marker

autosomal DNA: all your DNA except what’s on the X and Y chromosomes
 
biogeographical DNA test
An autosomal DNA test (also called an admixture test) that estimates percentages of your DNA associated with various geographic origins. 
 
confidence range or confidence interval: Your DNA results report will show the most likely ancestry percentages (for a biogeographic test) or date an MRCA lived (for a Y-DNA test). It’ll also provide a confidence range showing other possible results
 
ethnic DNA test
A Y-DNA or mtDNA test in which results are compared to databases containing DNA profiles of populations around the world for matches from particular ethnic backgrounds.

haplogroup: an identification of the genetic group your ancient ancestors (10,000 to 60,000 years ago) belonged to

haplotype: collectively, the marker values on your Y-DNA test results
  
HVR (hypervariable region): sections of mtDNA (such as HV1 and HV2) used to determine your haplogroup
 
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): genetic material mothers pass on to their children
 
MRCA (most recent common ancestor): the most recent ancestor two individuals both descend from

mutation: changes in DNA that can help reveal how long ago an MRCA lived when two people have closely matching marker values
 
recombination:  the process by which chromosomes cross and switch genetic materialat conception
 
SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism): harmless mutations in autosomal DNA that can indicate where your ancient ancestors came from
 
STR (short tandem repeat): a type of DNA marker used to determine relationships between individuals
 
Y-DNA: genetic material fathers pass to their sons
 
 
Genetic Genealogy Resources
 
 
Deep Ancestry: Inside The Genographic Project by Spencer Wells (National Geographic)
 
DNA and Genealogy by Colleen Fitzpatrick (Rice Book Press)
 
DNA and Tradition: The Genetic Link to the Ancient Hebrews by Yaakov Kleiman (Devora Publishing)
 
 
 
Family History in the Genes: Trace Your DNA and Grow Your Family Tree by Chris Pomery (The [UK] National Archives)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Seven Daughters of Eve by Bryan Sykes (W.W. Norton & Co.)
 
Saxons, Vikings, and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland by Bryan Sykes (W.W. Norton & Co.)
 
Trace Your Roots With DNA byMegan Smolenyak Smolenyak and Ann Turner (Rodale) 
 
 
 
 
 From the December 2009 Family Tree Magazine
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