The German Empire, 1892, David Rumsey Map Collection
Does your German family tree seem to be overloaded with Johanns and Marias? I have Johann Henrichs, brothers named Johannes Caspar and Johannes Franz Caspar, Maria Catharinas, a Maria Teresia, Anna Marias and more.
Our German Genealogy 201 Family Tree University course, developed by Family Tree German Genealogy Guide author James M. Beidler, explains why this is—and what it means for your German record searches:
German children were given two names. Boys commonly were baptized with the first name Johannes (or Johann, often abbreviated Joh). German girls were baptized Maria, Anna or Anna Maria. This tradition started in the Middle Ages.
So a family could have five boys with the first name Johann. You can see the potential for confusion until you understand that the first name doesn’t mean a thing.
The second name, known as the Rufname, along with the surname is what would be used in marriage, tax, land and death records.
So in a family with boys Johann Friedrich, Johann Peter, Johann Daniel, etc., the children would be called by (and recorded in documents as as) Friedrich, Peter and Daniel. Usually, the name Johannes in these records marked a “true John” who would continue to be so identified.
By the 19th century, more Germans gave their children three names. Again, typically only one of the middle names was used throughout the person’s life. Roman Catholics often used saints’ names, while most Protestant groups also included names from the Old Testament or even nonChristian mythology.
A second naming tradition involves nicknames, often called Kurzformen. In English, most nicknames are created by dropping the end of the given name (Christoper becomes Chris). But Germans often shorten a name by dropping the first part. Examples include:
- Nicklaus >> Klaus
- Sebastian >> Bastian
- Christophel >> Stophel
- Christina >> Stin or Stina
- Katharina >> Trin
Note that these familiar forms are used in church or other records, even though by today’s standards we might expect formal names to be used.
In German-speaking areas, children were almost always named for one or more of their baptismal sponsors. The most common pattern would be for sons to be named in this order:
- first born, for father’s father
- second born, mother’s father
- third born, father of the child
- fourth born and on, uncles of the child
The same pattern applies to daughters but using the mothers’ names (father’s mother, mother’s mother, etc.). Families would reuse given names for children who died young. There are even documented instances of families using the same name for two children who both survived.
The German Genealogy 201 online course helps you tackle research in records of Germany. The next session starts July 13. See a course description and sign up at Family Tree University.