A. There’s plenty of American history that we didn’t get taught in school — such as how racially mixed our society has actually been. Many mixed-blood families didn’t leave as Native Americans were pushed west. Some families, neither “white” nor “black,” evolved into a third community, while others blended into one, the other or both populations.
Mixed-blood families today are common throughout the eastern United States, though many have forgotten their heritage as it was never talked about except perhaps as a legend. Remember, only recently has being of Native American descent been accepted and even sought after. In the Midwest the Scotch-Irish and the French make up the largest intermarriage group among Native American tribes. In the mid-South the Scotch-Irish, English, Scots and Welsh intermarried to such a degree that almost all traces of Native American ancestry have been lost as families “passed for white.” Families that could not “pass” would either intermarry among each other or often became merged into African-American families.
If you’re looking at the US censuses and you find your ancestor listed as “free color,” “black,” “mulatto” or even as “Indian,” there’s no telling what exactly that meant to the census taker. It may be the first clue to Native American ancestors or it may be simply an ancestor with a dark complexion. Another clue might be if your ancestors can be traced back to a county where specific surnames are known to be mixed-blood or “free color” prior to the Civil War. This is especially true in North and South Carolina, where these families are still recognized by residence and surname. Such families may reorganize their tribe and openly keep their heritage alive — a claim they’ve substantiated through genealogy for state and federal acknowledgment of their tribe. Some of these tribes have Web sites; others are just beginning the genealogy process.