Some insight into women’s appearances in these records will help you tease out research leads and find maiden names. You’ll get more how-tos in A Genealogists’s Guide to Discovering Your Female Ancestors by Sharon DeBartolo Carmack (Betterway Books).
Cemetery: A tombstone may bear a woman’s maiden or married name, just her first initial, or her husband’s name (“loving wife of John Doe”). No maiden name? Check nearby plots: If they’re relatives, the names could be clues to your female ancestor. Contact the caretaker or cemetery or church office for the burial record, which may contain details such as who purchased the stone.
Census: Search every census during a woman’s lifetime. Look for relatives, as young couples sometimes lived with parents. In her later years, a woman may be living with one of her children. You won’t find many women’s names in pre-1850 censuses, when only heads of household were recorded. Instead, search for the husband or father and inspect the household members’ tick marks for one who might be your female ancestor.
Court: During many time periods, a woman didn’t have the right to leave a will unless her husband gave permission. But many unmarried, divorced and widowed women left wills. A woman also may be named in the will of her father, husband or son. (Even when a wife survived her husband, his will might appoint another guardian for their children.) For men who died intestate (without a will), research in court records for letters of administration distributing their property.
Divorces and divorce petitions were more common than you may think. Request court records from your ancestor’s county courthouse or search for microfilm in the Family History Library’s (FHL) <www.familysearch.org> online catalog. Rent films through a branch Family History Center near you.
Death: Death certificates often contain women’s maiden names, but the details are only as reliable as the informant, so be prepared for inaccuracies. Request the children’s death certificates, too — one may give a maiden name if another doesn’t. You can get death records from the state archives, or the county or state vital-records office where your relative lived. Find coverage years and contact information in the Family Tree Resource Book for Genealogists edited by Sharon DeBartolo Carmack and Erin Nevius (Family Tree Books).
If your ancestor died after 1962, search the Social Security Death Index using Stephen P. Morse’s One-Step search tool <stevemorse.org/ssdi/ssdi.html>. Then you can order a photocopy of the Social Security card application (called an SS-5) from the Social Security Administration <www.ssa.gov/foia> for $27.
Land: Though women rarely owned land, they may be named in deeds filed at county courthouses (check the FHL catalog for microfilmed records from your ancestor’s county). “Depending on the time period and the state laws, when a man bought or sold land, the record can include the name of his wife, and it might also include her release of dower,” says Carmack. A woman’s dower is her right to one-third her husband’s real property after his death, and she had to grant him the right to sell it.
Check both grantee (buyer) and grantor (seller) records to determine when the woman or her husband first appear as owning land, and when the land was sold — typically after the death of a spouse. Look for phrases such as et ux (and wife), and et al (and others); a very low purchase price; or names of children, grandchildren or siblings: These are clues the other party could be your female ancestor’s relatives.
Marriage: Often the best sources of maiden names, marriage certificates or license applications are usually available from the same repositories that have death records. You also might find a certificate on FHL microfilm.
Look for marriage banns and bonds among church records, too. A bann is a wedding announcement usually made on three successive Sundays. Before the 20th century, a groom would sign a bond guaranteeing there was no reason the couple shouldn’t marry. The bride’s father or brother usually signed as surety. If one of the couple was younger than the legal marriage age, a parent or guardian would give signed consent The FHL has some microfilmed church records, or you could try writing to the church or its headquarters. See the December 2004 Family Tree Magazine for more on church records research.
Naturalization: Until 1922, wives were sometimes listed on their husbands’ naturalization records. After that, you can find separate records for married women (children under 16 were on their fathers’ forms). Before 1906, immigrants filed for naturalization in their municipal, county, state or federal court. For naturalizations after 1906, submit a Freedom of Information Act request to US Citizenship and Immigration Services using form G-639, available at <www.uscis.gov/files/form/g-639.pdf>. But first, see if the FHL has the area’s naturalizations on microfilm.
Newspapers: Women may show up in the pages with recipes, sewing hints, ladies’ club news and gossip columns. Of course, check obituaries and the birth and wedding announcements, as well as notices of desertions, divorces, immigrations, bankruptcies and even unclaimed letters at the post office.
Historical newspapers are increasingly available online through subscription services such as GenealogyBank <www.genealogybank.com>, but you’ll probably have to do some microfilm scrolling. Check with the library where your ancestor lived and use Chronicling America <loc.gov/chroniclingamerica> to learn which newspapers covered your ancestor’s area and what repositories have them.