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If your immigrant ancestors arrived in the second half of the 19th century, chances are their trans-Atlantic voyage was powered by steam—a technology first practically applied to ships by Robert Fulton.
Steam power, which the Scotsman James Watt had first effectively harnessed to an engine in 1769, would drive the Industrial Revolution and make humanity mobile as never before—pulled by belching locomotives and spanning the seas in ships the size of small cities. “Unlike muscle power, it never tired or slept or refused to obey,” enthused The Quarterly Review of London in 1830. “Unlike waterpower, its immediate predecessor, it ran in all seasons and weathers, always the same. Unlike wind, it responded tractably to human will and imagination: turning on and off, modulating smoothly from the finest delicacy to the greatest force, ever under responsive control. It is impossible to contemplate, without feeling exultation, this wonder of the modern art.”
Previous inventors had attempted to use the “wonder” of steam to propel a ship, and Fulton’s famous claim is riddled by controversy. As early as 1783 in France, the Marquis de Jouffray d’Abbans steamed a small boat, the Pyroscaphe, across the Seine. When Scottish engineer William Symington successfully employed steam to power another small riverboat, the Charlotte Dundas, Fulton was on board the 1801 maiden voyage.
Robert Fulton’s riverboats
When neither nation wanted his submarine, Fulton turned his tinkering to powering ships atop the water, aided by a new partner—Robert Livingston, US minister to France. In 1802, Fulton successfully propelled a small paddlewheeler up the River Seine at three miles an hour. He took his designs back to America, where Livingston had obtained a monopoly on steamship operation on the Hudson River—contingent on the invention of a vessel that could travel four miles an hour.
That vessel would be the Clermont, which in August 1807 steamed from New York City to Albany—a distance of 150 miles—in 32 hours, an average speed of 4.7 miles an hour. The Clermont‘s history-making journey was the first of any distance powered by steam, and Fulton soon received a patent for his invention.
Although Fulton threw himself into building steamboats, which sailed the Raritan, Potomac and Mississippi rivers, and the first steam-powered warship, he didn’t live to see much of the steamship age he’d launched. He caught a cold crossing the Hudson after testifying in one of the many court battles sparked by his patent, and died Feb. 24, 1815.
The compound steam engine, which used steam twice in each engine cycle, made possible the building of ships of greater tonnage than ever before. In the half-century after 1850, the size of passenger ships grew more than tenfold. Cunard led the way, launching the Parthia and the Bactavia in 1868. As steel replaced iron, ships grew still larger. A new generation of superliners began with the Lusitania in 1907, the centennial of Fulton’s invention of the steamboat. Eight years later, the Lusitania and its 1,198 passengers sank into the sea in just 18 minutes, victims of a German submarine using another technology pioneered by Robert Fulton—the torpedo.
1811 New Orleans is the first steamboat to descend the Mississippi
1812 Scottish hotelier Henry Bell begins regular passenger service on the River Clyde
1818 Ferdinando Primo initiates steamer service on the Mediterranean, from Genoa to Naples, Italy
1819 Savannah, partly powered by steam, crosses the Atlantic
1826 First steamboat on Lake Michigan
1838 Trans-Atlantic passenger service begins
1851 Scottish engineer John Elder patents the compound steam engine
1853 Great Britain carries 630 passengers from London to Australia
1868 Cunard launches the Parthia and Bactavia, fitted with compound engines
1912 Titanic sinks on its maiden voyage, killing 1,522 passengers
1915 German U-boat sinks the Lusitania
1936 Queen Mary, powered by 27 boilers generating 160,000 horsepower, can cruise at 28.5 knots and carry 1,957 passengers and 1,174 crew