1. When did the British royal family take the surname Windsor and why?
2. Who is the longest reining monarch in the history of the British Crown?
3. How is Queen Elizabeth II (the current Queen of England) related to Queen Victoria?
4. Which king was the subject of the Oscar-winning film The King’s Speech?
5. Which royal did Adolf Hitler call “the most dangerous woman in Europe”?
6. What is the title of Queen Elizabeth II’s husband?
1. The family’s surname was changed to Windsor in 1917 from The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. George V changed the name while Britain was at war with Germany. With the royal family’s prominent German ancestry, he sought to improve the its public image with a more British-sounding name. The name was inspired by Windsor Castle.
2. Queen Victoria, who ruled for almost 64 years from June 20, 1837, until Jan. 22, 1901.
3. Queen Elizabeth II is Queen Victoria’s great-great-granddaughter. (See the Windsor family tree and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha family tree here.)
4. George VI, Queen Elizabeth II’s father, who became King upon his brother Edward VIII’s abdication of the throne to marry American divorcee Wallis Simpson.
5. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen consort of King George VI (and mother to Queen Elizabeth II), for her indomitable spirit that proved an asset to British morale during the war.
6. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families, but his family was exiled from Greece when he was a child. On his marriage to Queen Elizabeth II in 1947, Elizabeth’s father, King George VI, granted Philip the style of His Royal Highness and the title of Duke of Edinburgh. Elizabeth, who ascended to the throne in 1952, made him Prince of the United Kingdom in 1957.